The Ramayana is one of the two great Indian epics. The Ramayana tells about life in India around 1000 BCE and offers models in dharma. The hero, Rama, lived his whole life by the rules of dharma; in fact, that was why Indian consider him heroic. When Rama was a young boy, he was the perfect son. Later he was an ideal husband to his faithful wife, Sita, and a responsible ruler of Aydohya. "Be as Rama," young Indians have been taught for 2,000 years; "Be as Sita."
Prince Rama was the eldest of four sons and was to become king when his father retired from ruling. His stepmother, however, wanted to see her son Bharata, Rama's younger brother, become king. Remembering that the king had once promised to grant her any two wishes she desired, she demanded that Rama be banished and Bharata be crowned. The king had to keep his word to his wife and ordered Rama's banishment. Rama accepted the decree unquestioningly. "I gladly obey father's command," he said to his stepmother. "Why, I would go even if you ordered it."
When Sita, Rama's wife, heard Rama was to be banished, she begged to accompany him to his forest retreat. "As shadow to substance, so wife to husband," she reminded Rama. "Is not the wife's dharma to be at her husband's side? Let me walk ahead of you so that I may smooth the path for your feet," she pleaded. Rama agreed, and Rama, Sita and his brother Lakshmana all went to the forest.
When Bharata learned what his mother had done, he sought Rama in the forest. "The eldest must rule," he reminded Rama. "Please come back and claim your rightful place as king." Rama refused to go against his father's command, so Bharata took his brother's sandals and said, "I shall place these sandals on the throne as symbols of your authority. I shall rule only as regent in your place, and each day I shall put my offerings at the feet of my Lord. When the fourteen years of banishment are over, I shall joyously return the kingdom to you." Rama was very impressed with Bharata's selflessness. As Bharata left, Rama said to him, "I should have known that you would renounce gladly what most men work lifetimes to learn to give up."
Later in the story, Ravana, the evil King of Lanka, (what is probably present-day Sri Lanka) abducted Sita. Rama mustered the aid of a money army, built a causeway across to Lanka, released Sita and brought her safely back to Aydohya. In order to set a good example, however, Rama demanded that Sita prove her purity before he could take her back as his wife. Rama, Sita and Bharata are all examples of persons following their dharma.
Rama, also Ramacandra. The hero of the major Hindu epic, Ramayaṇa. The initial core of the epic portrays Rama as a courageous prince following the example of his ancestor Raghu (hence his epithet Raghava). But in the full epic and the Puraṇas, Rama is an avatara (manifestation) of Vishnu, the seventh and almost equal in importance to Krishna. Rama and his wife Sita are the model spouses for Hindus. Valmiki traces the spiritual path of Rama in Yoga-vasistha, and to him also is ascribed the central part of Ramayana. The present work is in seven kandas, sections, of which (ii)–(vi) tell of Rama's birth (celebrated in the festival Rama Navami) and childhood; his life in Ayodhya and his banishment; his life in the forest and Sita's abduction by Ravana; Rama's life with his monkey allies; his crossing over the bridge to Sri Lanka; the battle, the defeat of Ravana (celebrated in the festival of Dasara) and the rescue of Sita; his life in Ayodhya, Sita's banishment and return, their death and ascent to heaven. (i) and (vii) contextualize the narrative by glorifying Rama as an avatara of Vishnu. To read the epic is to be associated with Rama. The same is effected by repeating Rama's name in the ear of a dying person. Ram as a mantra is held, especially by Vaishnavites, to contain the universe, and from that mantra all languages have emerged.
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